Liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy (LP-TEM) allows for in-situ observations of the dynamic behaviour of materials in liquids at the highest spatial and temporal resolution in controlled environments (e.g. fluid properties and temperature). The option to observe such processes in real time has only been accurate enough to apply it to complex systems in the last 5 years. Nevertheless, electron beam induced changes in pH, nucleation rate and radiolysis can be a challenge and must be accounted for. The thickness of the liquid layer must also be considered; thin enough for the best possible spatial resolution but thick enough to hold a sufficient volume a fluid for scalable physical and chemical processes.. The GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) has its own LP-TEM facility (Protochips Poseidon model), the only one in Germany in a geosciences research unit, which is supported by my full time postdoctoral research position.
Current projects using this facility include:
Investigating the crystallization pathways of struvite using in-situ liquid cell and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy.
An in-situ microstructural study of the hydration of calcium silicates using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy.
Interfacial chemistry of green rust sulphate with arsenic species: Adsorption uptake, kinetic rates and (meta)stability. (Metal Aid)
University of Leeds - Electron Microscopy Facility