IPIR - Ionospheric Plasma IRregularities and fluctuations based on Swarm data

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Ionospheric plasma is often characterised by irregularities and fluctuations in its density. Plasma density irregularities and fluctuations can influence the propagation of trans-ionospheric radio waves and are thus of importance for any operations that rely on precise positioning with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Indeed, ionospheric scintillations are one of the most important observed space weather effects. Understanding ionospheric plasma irregularities and fluctuations is thus of both scientific and practical interest. In this project we develop a high-level, global product based on Swarm satellite measurements that will characterize ionospheric irregularities and fluctuations, and addressing the needs of scientific community and operational users. Products resulting from IPIR will be visualised within the virtual research service - VirES for Swarm.

Time Frame

2017 - 2018


The European Space Agency (ESA) through Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

Principal Investigators

  • Assoc. Prof. Wojciech J. Miloch (UiO) - Primary Coordinator
  • Dr. Chao Xiong (GFZ)


  • Dr. Guram Kervalishvili (GFZ)
  • Prof. Dr. Claudia Stolle (GFZ)

Project Website



  • Universitetet i Oslo (UiO), Norway
  • Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU), Denmark


  • Jin, Y., Spicher, A., Xiong, C., Clausen, L. B. N., Kervalishvili, G., Stolle, C., & Miloch, W. J. ( 2019). Ionospheric plasma irregularities characterized by the Swarm satellites: Statistics at high latitudes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 124, 1262– 1282. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JA026063
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