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Woody C4 and C3 plants vs. climate change


  • to investigate past and present response of woody C3 and C4 plants to climate change
  •  to get better insight into the long-term variability of growth and water-use efficiency of woody C3 and C4 plants
  •  to extend the instrumental record of atmospheric CO2 dynamics (δ13CO2, CO2 concentration) inferred from δ13C of C4 tree rings back in time
  •  to elucidate the potential for adaptation of C3 and C4 plants to climate change

Study sites and Material:

  • C3 (Mamane, Sophora chrysophylla) and C4 (Akoko, Euphorbia olowaluana), from Pohakuloa Training Area, Hawaii (ridge between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea)
  • High quality instrumental data records from the nearby Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO), with continuous direct measurements of atmospheric CO2 since 1958 for isotope proxy data calibration


  • Measurement of growth increment periodicity and the stable isotope ratios of carbon and oxygen in tree ring cellulose
  • Dendroecological long-term monitoring of Hawaiian woody C3 and C4 plants
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