Section 1.3: Earth System Modelling

Vertical and horizontal deformations of the crust imposed by surface loading of geophysical fluids in atmosphere, oceans and the continental hydrosphere are provided with a spatial resolution of 0.5° and a temporal sampling of down to 3 hours. The elastic deformations are calculated via Green's Functions in two different reference frames (i.e., Center-of-Figure and Center-of-Mass).

The Atmosphere and Ocean De-Aliasing Level 1B (AOD1B) Product for the satellite mission GRACE is based on operational analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and corresponding simulations with a global general ocean circulation model that is consistently forced with atmospheric data from ECMWF.

Matter and motion terms of effective angular momentum functions due to mass transport processes in atmosphere, oceans, and the continental hydrosphere are provided with a temporal resolution of down to 3 hours. Additionally, short-term forecasts of geophysically induced Earth rotation excitations are calculated for up to 6 days into the future.

The updated Earth System Model of the European Space Agency (ESA ESM) represents a modell-based time-variable gravity field given in 6-hourly sets of spherical harmonics up to degree and order 180 for the years 1995 to 2006. The ESA ESM is designed for the assessment of interdisciplinary research questions in a synthetic simulation environment that typically emerge during the specification phase of future satellite missions.