Brillouin spectroscopy is a technique that allows us to measure acoustic sound velocity in small transparent samples up to very high pressures in a diamond-anvil cell. This technique exploits Brillouin scattering, inelastic scattering by collective thermal motions in condensed materials.

Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) Spectrometer

In our lab we use a FTIR-spectrometer Vertex 80v manufactured by Bruker.

GHz Ultrasonic Interferometry

The GHz Ultrasonic Interferometry is used to determine the sound wave velocities of minerals at high pressure in a diamond anvil cell. Because GHz Interferometry does not use any optical component, this method is applicable especially for opaque minerals such like magnetite, franklinite or magnesiowüstite.

High-T gas-mixing furnace with in situ measurement of oxygen fugacity

The one bar gas-mixing furnace allows material studies and synthesis under fixed oxygen fugacity up to temperatures of 1500°C. The oxygen fugacity, which is controlled by mixing various C-O-H-(Ar) gases, is measured in situ by an oxygen-specific solid electrolyte. The equipment is particularly suited for studies of materials containing transition elements, redox phase equilibria, micro-scale transport and reaction processes, petrophysical measurements at fixed oxygen fugacity.

Hydrothermal Diamond-Anvil Cell (HDAC)

The hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell can be applied to study fluids and solids in situ at high pressures and temperatures (usually to about 2 GPa and 1100 K) using a wide range of techniques, e.g., optical microscopy and microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, Brillouin spectroscopy, infrared absorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray absorption.

Hydrothermal laboratory

18 cold-seal hydrothermal autoclaves

Internally heated pressure vessel

In principle, an internally heated pressure vessel (IHPV) consists of a thick-walled pressure vessel sealed by closure plugs at the ends. In addition, there is a pressure inlet/outlet as well as several electrical leads into the vessel for power supply to and temperature control of the internal furnace. The equipment is particularly designed for experimental studies at medium to high temperatures (currently up to 1250 ° C) and pressures up to 10 kbar. This P-T range is unaccessible by convential cold-seal pressure vessels. Because Ar gas is used as the pressure medium, the pressure in IHPV experiments is known more accurately than in experiments using solid-media piston cylinder equipment. Another advantage of IHPV is the comparatively large sample chamber (zone of constant T), allowing to run simultaneously 5-10 sample capsules.

Raman spectroscopy laboratory

The laboratory is equipped with two confocal high-resolution Raman spectrometer systems to study fluid and solid samples (from single point analyses and line scans to two- and three-dimensional Raman imaging) at ambient pressure and temperature and over a wide range of P-T conditions.

Rotating Multi-Anvil Press

A Rotating Multi-Anvil Press constructed by Max Voggenreiter GmbH is installed in the high-pressure hall of the GFZ. The apparatus consists of an 800 ton hydraulic press and a Walker-type multi-anvil module.

Single crystal X-ray diffractometer

The positions in space and their intensities of the diffracted X-ray beam provide structural information from crystalline materials. Such with a single crystal diffractometer the structures of minerals can be determined.

X-Ray Powder Diffractometer (XRD)

X-ray powder diffraction is used by us for identification, quantitative phase analysis and structure refinement of phases in synthesized powders. Most diffraction data is processed by the Rietveld method using the GSAS software package.

Piston cylinder press

To investigate the pressure/temperature regime of the Earth´s crust and shallow parts of the upper mantle, at the GFZ three piston cylinder presses are installed and run.

TEM Laboratory

The Transmission Electron Microscopy TEM laboratory is a state-of-the-art facility equipped with a FEI Tecnai G2 F20 X-Twin transmission electron microscope and a FEI FIB200TEM Focused Ion Beam device for specimen preparation. The laboratory provides powerful techniques for characterization of crystal structure, microstructures and chemical composition of materials down to a near atomic level.

TEM: Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Laboratory

Focused Ion Beam Thinning allows:

  • Preparation of site specific TEM foils of homogeneous thickness
  • Nano-machining: drilling, cutting, polishing, etching
  • Metal deposition (platinum)

Large-volume Titanium-autoclave with extraction capabilities for immiscible fluids

The large-volume Ti-autoclave, which is designed to allow for quasi-isobaric sampling of coexisting liquid-vapour pairs, has a total volume of 500 cm3 and the sample volume is about 0.2 % of the total volume.

Computer for Simulations

Infrastructure for the simulation of (geo)materials is provided by GFZ and the Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC).


Profile photo of  Prof. Dr. Monika Koch-Müller

Prof. Dr. Monika Koch-Müller
Chemistry and Physics of Earth Materials

Building D, room 325
14473 Potsdam
tel. +49 331 288-1492